Animal Senses And Movement

Updated 2007-05-23 23:11


Question Answer
Sensory neurons-modified dendrites that respond to environmental variables for example touch dendrites depolarize in response to touch
What does the human ear transduce sound waves into?Signals in the auditory nerve
Anatomy of ear-1.outer ear 2. Middle ear 3. Inner ear
Outer ear function and what is it made of?collects sound-funnels sound waves into middle ear and is made of skin and cartilage
Middle ear function and whats it made of?Amplifies sound-It includes ear drum(timpanic membrane) which is attached to auditory ossicles
What triggers sound in ears?sound waves stimulate vibration of timpanic membrane an ossicles
Inner ear function and what its made of-transduces sound to a nerve signal-the stapes attached to the ossicles hit’s a cochlea which is fluid filled and high in potassium causing pressure waves in fluid
What does the inner ear contain?Cochlea and vestibule
What is the vestibule responsible for?Balance orientation and acceleration
What are the three steps in sound transduction?1. Pressure waves bend stereo cilia (modified dendrites) making K+ channels open so the K+ rushes into cell and causes depolarization 2. Calcium channels open and Ca2+ rushes into cell which stimulates exocytose of neurotransmitters 3.neurotransmitters stimulate neurons of auditory nerve
What kind of eyes do insects have?Compound eyes with immaterial (functional units of eyes) containing receptor cells
What are the three layers of the retina?Ganglion cells, connecting neurons and photoreceptor cells
Lens-bends light
Pupil-hole in front of lens
Iris-muscle that controls diameter of pupil
Why do your eyes hurt when going out of a movie theatre and outside?Because your pupil was big in the dark so it is super sensitive to light
What is inside the retina?Photoreceptor cells
What are the 2 types of photoreceptor cells and what do they do?Rods which depolarize dim light and black and white vision and cones which are for bright light and color vision
What are rods made up of?Rhodopsin(pigment) molecules green-opsin-large protein and center retinal-vitamin A
What is inside rhodopsin?Retinal molecule which absorbs light and then changes shape
What are the three types of cones?S opsin-blue M opsin-green to red
L opsingreen to red
What does the overlap in opsins mean?greater sensitivity to different colors
Why do we have sensitivity in green-red?Fruit colors and differentiating them (ripe)
What kind of opsins do deep sea fish have?Diff opsins have blue cones and many of them
What causes color blindness?it’s a sex linked trait (dad must be color blind and mom must be carrier) when an individual is Lacking M or L opsin
What kind of opsins do nocturnal animals have?Many rods and few cones
Lower wavelength-UV
High wavelength-infrared
What animals can detect UV light?Some insect and birds
What animals can detect infrared light?Some snakes have pits to detect infrared light
Taste-chemicals bind to taste buds
Sour-H+ ions stimulate
Slty-Na+ ions stimulate
Smell-chemicals in air bind to modified dendrites in olfactory neurons
What are the three types of muscles?Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Skeletal muscle-moves skeleton, is multinucleated, and activity is voluntary meaning that a signal from the motor neuron is required also my oblasts (embryonic muscle cells) fuse during development
Cardiac muscle-pumps blood, has 1 or 2 nuclei and activity is non voluntary meaning that a signal from the motor neuron is not required and has autorhythmicity spontaneously beats by itseft by autonomic neurons
Smooth muscle-moves food and regulates blood pressure, is single nucleated and its activity is non-voluntary meaning a signal from a motor neuron is not required and is auto rhythmic as well
What are the 5 parts of the skeletal muscle?1.muscle 2.fasicles which are bundles of muscle cells 3.muscle cells which are myofibers 4.myofibrils which are proteins 5.sarcomeres which are parts/sections of myofibrials
What are myofibrils composed of?Thin actin and thick myosin filaments
What happens when a muscle contracts?Sarcomeres shorten as thin and thick filaments move past each other
What happens when a muscle is stimulated?Cytoplasmic Ca2+ ions increase which causes the thick and thin filaments to slide past each other. Calcium allows thin and thick filaments to bind and the myosin heads bend inward and pull thin filaments with them.
Neuromuscular junction-acetylcholine (Ach) is released from neuron and opens Na+ channels in sarcolemma Na+ rushes in and action potentials move down T-tubules into the cell and action potentials stimulate SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum) to release stored Ca+2 in cytoplasm then the muscle contracts when it relaxes its put back into the SR by active transport
Cartilage-cushioning in between bones
Bones-stores calcium and is used for support
Tendon-white end (muscle to bone)
Ligament-bone to bone
Antagonistic pairs-when one muscle in a pair contracts the other relaxes
What is an example of an antagonistic pair-flexor and extensor
Extensor-joint angle decreasing (hamstring)
Flexor-straightening (quad)