Fish And Wildlife Conservation

Updated 2007-02-04 21:44

Introduction and Definitions

Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
Leopold's definitions of wildlife and managementWildlife: all undomesticated animals; Management: application of some human activity to achieve a planned goal.
Modern definition of wildlife/fishery managementApplication of ecological knowledge to manage populations of animals and their plant and animal associations. Includes both game and non-games species.
Three parts of a wildlife system or fisheryBiota (single or multiple taxa), habitat, and human user.
Three styles of managementPreservation (no interference), direct manipulation ( direct change to gain a desired consequence; can also cause undesired consequences), and indirect manipulation (takes into account other factors besides the species you are specifically targeting).
Distinguishing factors of wildlifeDeterminant growth , endothermic, mostly terrestrial, lower reproductive potential, humans tend towards anthropomorphism.
Distinguishing factors of fishIndeterminate growth, ectothermic (large temp. range tolerance), aquatic, relatively high reproductive potential, anthropomorphized less than wildlife.


Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
What were the first examples of wildlife management?Ancient Egyptians placed restrictions on waterfowl harvest; Kublai Kahn banned hunting of mammals during the summer.
When and what was the era of abundance?1600-1850; an era of abundant wildlife and the creation of a market for wild game.
What regulations occurred during the era of abundance?Massachusetts Bay Colony bounty on wolves; Rhode Island's first closed deer season; New York's first upland game bird season.
What species were lost during the era of abundance?Great Auk and Stellar's Sea Cow.
When and what was the era of depletion?1850-1900; an era of overexploitation due to a lack of adequate laws; facilitated by improved technology such as repeating firearms and the railroad.
What protective laws were passed during the era of depletions?First game wardens in Maine; first hungting license in NY; first National Park (Yellowstone); first daily bag limit (Iowa); Creation of US Commision on Fish and Fisheries.
What species went extinct during the era of depletion?Passenger pigeon, Labrador duck, Carolina parakeet, Heath hen.
When and What was the era of protection?1900-1929; an era where refuges were formed, artifical propagation and stocking began, and most State Fish and Game agencies were established. Gifford Pinchot coined the term "conservation."
What was some important legislation from the era of protection?Lacy Act, which prohibited interstate traffic in game taking in violation of the law, and initiated permits for introduction of exotics; the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, which established international cooperation between Canada and US for protection and management of migratory birds; Migratory Bird Conservation Act, which established national wildlife refuges for waterfowl; first Federal Bird Reservation, located on Pelican Island, FL, which is now part of the National Wildlife Refuge.
When and what was the era of game management?1930-1965; Aldo Leopold, the "father of wildlife management," noted that simple protection of game failed to halt the accelerated decline of many species. Increased emphasis was placed on wildlife research and education.
What was some important legislation from the era of game management?Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (duck Stamp); the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (Pittman-Robertson Act) which placed a 10% excise tax on hand guns and 11% excise tax on sporting arms, ammunition and archery equipment, to be used for funding wildlife conservation; the Federal Aid in Sport Fishing Act, which placed the same tax on sport fishing equipment; the Multiple Use Act, which managed the forests for other resources; the Wilderness Act, which established wilderness preservation system.
When and what was the era of environmental awareness?1965-present; as societal values changed, public concern for game species broadened to include most environmental issues.
What was some important legislation from the era of environmental awareness?the National Environmental Policy Act, which implemented Environmental Impact Statement process; The EPA was established; endangered Species Act; Clean Water and Air Acts.

Value of Wildlife


Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
ValuesQualities that make something more or less important, desirable or useful.
Positive wildlife valuesAdd to natural beauty, recreational and commercial hunting, contribute to the health of the ecosystem, useful to humans for food and clothing, and benefit to society from research.
Negative wildlife valuesLivestock depredation, crop damage, and disease.
What are the nine attitudes towards wildlife?Naturalistic, ecologistic, humanistic, moralistic, scientistic, aesthetic, utilitarian, dominionistic, negativistic.
NaturalisticPrimary interest & affection for wildlife and the outdoors.
EcologisticPrimary concern for the environment as a system, for interrelationships between wildlife species and natural habitats.
HumanisticPrimary interest and strong affection for individual animals, principally pets.
MoralisticPrimary concern for the right and wrong treatment of animals, with strong opposition to exploitation or cruelty towards animals.
ScientisticPrimary interest in the physical attributes and biological functioning of animals.
AestheticPrimary interest in the artistic and symbolic characteristics of animals.
UtilitarianPrimary concern for the practical and material value of animals or the animal's habitat.
DominionisticPrimary interest in the mastery and control of animals, typically in sporting situations, but also photography, birding and sheds.
NegativisticPrimary orientation is an active avoidancy of animals due to indifference, dislike or fear.
What are the three main conservation philosophies?Romantic Transcendental Preservation Ethic (preservation, no exploitation for profit allowed); Progressive-Utilitarian Conservation Ethic (use of natural resources for the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time; used principle of equity and efficiency); Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic (natural resources are an integrated system of complex processes; Leopold).
How does Leopold's philosophy differ from that of animal rights?Leopold's land ethic encouraged active intervention such as hunting to prevent problems and manage ecosystem integrity. Animal Rights activists think that ecosystem integrity and animal populations are secondary to the rights of the individual animals.

Overabundant Wildlife

Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
What is the general scenario that occurs with overabundant wildlife?Some alteration of landscape or population of a keystone species leads to population growth; the higher numbers lead to conflict with humans, and is very difficult to resolve because of the various perceptions of the problem.
How did the snow geese become so populous?Their winter habitat was changed due to agriculture, producing an increase in winter refuges, and there was a restriction placed on hunter harvest; therefore, the adult survival rate went up 10%.
What are some of the consequences to the snow geese due to this change?Larger colony sizes and formation of new colonies; increase in breeding pairs but decrease in mean clutch size and mean fledgling size; higher parasite load and lower gosling survival rate.
What are some of the impacts on the ecosystem?Coastal tidal marshes have been grazed down to nothing, which ultimately leads to desertification of the lands; other areas have also been grazed so heavily that they may never recover.
What are some suggested solutions to the problem?Allow spring hunting; increase subsistence and commercial harvest; relax the legal means of take; active controls by fedral and state agencies.
What is mainly affecting the implementation of these policies?Existing treaty agreements, changing societal values, and the belief of some that this population surge is part of a normal cycle.

Wildlife Economics

Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
What are some sources of direct income from wildlife?Fishing, hunting and trapping license sales; hunting clubs; fishing tackle; guide services.
What are some sources of indirect income from wildlife?Hotel rentals; optical equipment; camperas; bird seed; books; gas and groceries; boat, kayak and canoe sales; clothing.
What was the total expenditures for wildlife related recreation in 2001?$108 billion.
How is valuation accomplished?Direct methods (measuring revenues generated), indirect methods; include the travel cost method (values based on how much is spent traveling to the site) and contingent valuation method (how much a person would pay to avoid a hypothetical change in a scenario).
What is a cost-benefit analysis?An approach used to understand the impact of a proposed project; compares the values gained against the costs of the proposed project; frequently included in the Environmental Impact Assessment process.
What are some of the problems with the cost benefit analysis?It doesn't take into consideration those things whcih we cannot place a quantitative value upon.
What is mitigation?Working out a plan to offset the negative results of a project; in this case, replacing lost habitat with more habitat that has a the same Habitat Suitability Index Value.
What are Habitat Units and how are they calculated?Habitat Units are acres of land with a specific value, determined by multiplying acres lost by their value to the species of concern, or their HSI value.
How are lost acres replaced?The land must be the same value as the land lost; however, if there are more acres, it can have a lower HSI value.
What are some examples of privitization of wildlife?Game ranching, such as buffalo, elk and nutria; selling hunting access on private property; guided hunts and fishing trips on public or private lands.
What is a major issue with privitizing wildlife?When the economy of local communities or individuals gets tied directly to wildlife management, things get very complicated, and can change very quickly; spotted owl caused a loss of 9300 jobs in an already declining logging industry, and the distribution of the jobs within the state changed.

Evolution and Natural Selection

Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
EvolutionA change in genetic composition in a population over time.
What are the 5 ways that evolution occurs?Genetic drift (change in allele frequency), founder effect, inbreeding, hybridization, and natural selection.
What are the four conditions that must be met for evolution to occur by natural selection?1. Organisms must vary in their phenotype. 2. Variability in phenotype is heritable (ex: losing a limb from an alligator is not heritable). 3. More young are produced than survive to reproduce. 4. Individuals with some genes are more likely to survive and reproduce than others.
Where does natural selection occur: populations, individuals or both?Individuals.
Where does evolution occur: Populations, individuals or both?Populations.
What are the three types (trends) of natural selection?Stabilizing selection (a narrowing of the curve, where one morph is preferred over the other), Directional selection (a shift of the curve in one direction, where the population is driven to take another form), and Diversifying or Disruptive selection (one curve becomes two, or half of a curve becomes one; one or more morphs is favored).
What are the two concepts used to define a species?Biological and Phylogenetic.
Biological Species Concept A group of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
What does reproductive isolation include?Courtship behavior, anatomical incompatibility, characters that signal species identity, and viability of offspring.
Phylogenetic Species ConceptReadily distinguishable populations sharing a common ancestor.
What are some problems with each species concept?BSC is not testable in most cases, and it doesn't emphasize phylogeny. PSC ends up with trivial differences being counted as different species.
What is allopatric speciation?1 population is split into two and physically separated (allopatrically separated), resulting in restricted gene flow and possible genetic drift. Natural selection causes the evolution of the population.
What are parapatric species? Sympatric species?Parapatric = share a common border. Sympatric = occuring in the same area.
If the physical boundary is removed and the two populations have an ecological overlap, how can one tell if they are separate species?1. No interbreeding or the hybrids are infertile; ecological overlap leads to competition.
Why is it important to understand evolution and natural selection?Genotypes determine their habitat needs and behaviors/responses to human influence on ecosystems. 2. Adaptation is slow compared to the rate at which humans change the environment. 3. Loss of allele diversity may prevent or constrain the species from adapting when the environment changes. 4. Recreation and commercial hunting and fishing can be an evolutionary force.
What are some concerns with artificial selection?A common practice in fishery management and game ranching, there is the concern that the stocks may have been altered in ways not intended, such as removing most of the genetically dominant animals from the gene pool, thus leaving the smaller, subordinate animals to reproduce.

Ecological Concepts

Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
Range of Ecological ToleranceOrganisms are adapted to survive within a range of conditions for each component of the environment. As the component moves away from the optimum, there are stages of population survival, then individual survival, and then short term survival. A narrow range is called steno (e.g., stenosaline for low saline tolerance) and a wide range is called eury (e.g. eurysaline).
Nichethe place of an organism in the ecosystem and its role or function in the environment.
Fundamental NicheWhat researchers determine is the optimal niche for a species based on calculating the various components of its environment
Realized NicheThe actual niche where the species is found.
Competitionwhen two or more organisms attempt to exploit a limited resource; occurs when niches overlap.
Keystone (limiting) resourceResources that occupy a small area but are crucial to, or can limit, species in a community; ex: salt and mineral licks, deep pools, tree cavities.
Competitive exclusion principleNo two species can occupy the same exact niche; use resource partitioning to exploit resources as a result of the natural selection process.
Scramble Competitioneach individual uses resources without regard to the other individuals (flies on a carcass).
Interference CompetitionIndividuals actively interfere with the access of others to a limited resource.
What are two forms of social behavior demonstrated in interference competition?Territoriality and dominance.
Dominance HierarchyLittle overt aggression is needed to maintain dominance if in a linear hierarchy, and lessens injury to both dominants and subordinates.