Medical Conditions


Medical Conditions 1 (tables 1-8)

Memorize important facts involving diseases and medical conditions.
See also: Medical Conditions 2, Medical, and other Sciences.

8 tables of "Classic findings"

3 tables of "Most Common Associations"

2 tables of "Most Frequent Causes"

You can memorize...

one table at a time (click "memorize" on the column heading)
all tables in a category (click "memorize all" at the end of the category)
all tables together (click "memorize all on this page" at the bottom of the page)

Classic Findings

(1) Disease/FindingAssociation
Actinic KeratosisOften precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Albright's syndromePolyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
Albuminocytologic dissociationGuillain-Barre (increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Alport's syndromeHereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Anti-basement membrane antibodiesGoodpasture's syndrome
Anti-centromere antibodiesScleroderma (CREST)
Anti-epithelial cell antibodiespemphigus vulgaris
Anti-gliadin antibodiesceliac disease
Anti-histone antibodiesdrug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodiesRheumatoid
Anti-mitochondrial antibodiesPrimary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-platelet antibodiesITP
ArachnodactylyMarfan's syndrome
Argyll Robertson PupilNeurosyphilis
Arnold Chiari malformationcerebellar tonsillar herniation
Aschoff bodiesRheumatic fever
Atrophy of the mamillary bodiesWernicke's encephalopathy
Auer rodsAcute myelogenous leukemia (especially promyelocytic)
AutosplenectomySickle cell anemia
Babinski's signUMN Lesion
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossaRheumatoid arthritis
Bamboo spineankylosing spondylitis
Bartter's syndromeHyper-reninemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCLead poisoning; beta-Thalassemia
Becker's muscular dystrophydefective dystrophin, less severe than Duchenne's
Bell's palsyLMN CN VII palsy
Bence Jones proteinsMultiple myeloma (K or L light chains); Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)


(2) Disease/FindingAssociation
Berger's diseaseIgA nephropathy
Bernard-SoulierDefect in platelet adhesion
Bilateral Hilar Adenopathy & UveitisSarcoidosis
Birbeck Granules on EMHistiocytosis X (Eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody tap on LPSubarachnoid Hemorrhage
Blue BloaterChronic Bronchitis
Blue domed cystsFibrocystic change of breast
Blue Scleraosteogenesis imperfecta
Boot-shaped heart on x-rayT.O.F. or R Ventricle Hypertrophy
Bouchard's Noduleosteoarthritis (PIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Boutonnier deformityrheumatoid arthritis
Branching rods in oral infectionActinomyces israelii
Brown tumor of bonehemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts, caused by hyperparathyroidism, osteitis fibrosa cystica
Brushfield spotsDown syndrome
Bruton's DiseaseX linked agammaglobulinemia (deficiency of tyrosine kinase)
Budd Chiari syndromeposthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger's Diseasethromboangiitis obliterans, small to medium artery vasculitis
Burkitt's Lymphomat(8;14) associated with EBV
Burton's lineslead poisoning
c-ancawegener's granulomatosis
p-ancapolyarteritis nodosa
cafe-au-lait spots on skinneurofibromatosis
Caisson diseasenitrogen gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophyDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Call-exner bodiesgranulosa theca cell tumor of ovary
Cardiomegaly with atypical atrophyChagas' Disease
Cerebriform nucleimycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma)
Chagas' diseaseTrypanosome infection (kissing bug feeds on sleeping persons, defecates in their wounds)
ChancrePrimary syphilis (not painful)
ChancroidH. ducreyi (painful)
Charcot's TriadMultiple sclerosis: 1. nystagmus 2. intention tremor 3. scanning speech
Charcot's TriadCholangitis: 1. RUQ pain 2. Fever 3. Jaundice
Charcot Leyden CrystalsBronchial asthma (pieces of eosinophil membranes)
Chediak-Higashi DiseasePhagocyte deficiency


(3) Disease/FindingAssociation
Cherry-red spot on maculaTay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick, central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne Stokes RespirationCentral apnea in CHF and increased ICP
Chocolate cystsEndometriosis
Chronic atrophic gastritispredisposition to gastric carcinoma
Chvosteks signHypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vaginaDES exposure in utero
Clue cellsGardnerella vaginitis
Codman's triangle on x-rayosteosarcoma
cold agglutininsMycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis
Cold intoleranceHypothyroidism
Condylomata latasecondary syphilis
Continuous machinery murmurPatent ductus arteriosus
Cori's diseaseDebranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton-wool spotsChronic hypertension
Cough, conjuntivitis, coryza + fevermeasles
Councilman bodiestoxic or viral hepatitis
Cowdry type A bodiesherpes virus
Crescents in Bowman's capsulerapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crigler-Najjar syndromecongenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
curling's ulceracute gastric ulcer associated with sever burns
Currant jelly sputumKlebsiella
Curschmann's spiralsBronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
cushing's ulceracute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigraParkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrheaPellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
Diabetes insipidus + exopthalmos + lesions of skullHand-Schuller-Christian disease
Doc or cat bitepasteurella multocida
Donovan bodiesGranuloma inguinale
Dressler's syndromePost-MI fibrinous pericarditis


(4) Disease/FindingAssociation
Dubin-Johnson syndromeCongenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophydeleted dystrophin gene (x-linked recessive)
EburnationOsteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearnace of bone)
Edwards' sydromeTrisomy 18: rocker-bottom feet, low set ears, heart disease
Eisenmenger's complexlate cyaniosis shunt (uncorrected L to R shunt becomes R to L shunt)
Elastic skinEhlers-Danlos syndrome
Erb-Duchenne palsySuperior trunk brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip")
Fanconi's syndromeproximal tubular reabsorption defect
"Fat, female, forty, fertile"Acute cholecystitis
Fatty liverAlcoholism
Ferruginous bodiesAsbestosis
Gardner's syndromeColon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher's diseaseGlucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon focusprimary TB
Gilbert's syndromeBenign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzmann's thrombastheniaDefect in platelet aggregation
Goodpasture's syndromeAutoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Gowers' maneuverDuchenne's (use of arms to help legs pick self up off floor)
Guillain-Barre syndromeidiopathic polyneuritis
"Hair-on-end" appearance on x-raybeta thalassemia, sickle cell. (extramedullary hematopoesis)
Hand-Schuller-Christian diseaseChronic progressive histiocytosis
HbFThalassemia major
HbSSickle cell anemia
hCG elevatedChoriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs without embryo)
Heberden's nodesOsteoarthritis (DIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Heinz bodiesG6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schonlein purpuraHypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
Heterophil antibodiesInfectious mononucleosis (EBV)
High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)Wet beriberi (Thiamine, vit B1 deficiency)
HLA B27Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA-DR3 or DR4Diabetes mellitus type 1 (autoimmune destruction of beta cells)
Homer Wright rosettesNeuroblastoma
Honeycomb lung on x-rayInterstitial fibrosis


(5) Disease/FindingAssociation
Horner's syndromePtosis, miosis, anhidrosis
Howell-Jolly bodiesSplenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)
Huntington's DiseaseCaudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocilityKluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
Hyperpigmentation of skinprimary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serumAnencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levelsGout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
IntussusceptionAdenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)
Janeway lesionsEndocarditis
Jarisch-Herxheimer reactionSyphilis-overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Job's syndromeNeutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Kaposi's sarcomaAIDS in MSM
Kartagener's syndromeDynein defect
Kayser-Fleischer ringsWilson's disease
Keratin pearlsSquamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodulesDiabetic nephropathy
Kluver-Bucy syndromeBilateral amygdala leisons
Koplik spotsMeasles
Krukenberg tumorGastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpneaDiabetic ketoacidosis
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibilityMarfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
Lesch-Nyhan syndromeHGPRT deficiency
Lewey BodiesParkinson's disease
Libman-Sacks diseaseendocarditis associated with SLE
Lines of Zahnarterial thrombus
Lisch nodulesNeurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)


(5) Disease/FindingAssociation
Low serum ceruloplasminWilson's disease
Loeffler endocarditisendomyocardial fibrosis with hypereosinophilia syndrome
Lucid intervalEpidural hematoma
"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescencePoststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Lytic bone lesions on x-rayMultiple myeloma
Mallory bodiesAlcoholic liver disease
Mallory-Weiss syndromeEsophagogastric lacerations
McArdle's diseaseMuscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney's signAppendicitis
MLF syndrome (INO)Multiple sclerosis
Monoclonal antibody spikeMultiple myleoma, MGUS, Waldenstrom's
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritisWegener's and Goodpasture's
Needle0shpaed, negatively birefringent crystalsGout
Negri bodiesRabies
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing lossAlport's syndrome
Neurofilbrillary tanglesAlzheimer's disease
Niemann-Pick diseaseSphingomyelinase deficiency
No lactation postpartumSheehan's syndrome (pituatary infarction)
Nutmeg liverCHF
Occupational exposure to asbestosMalignant mesothelioma
"Orphan Annie" nucleiPapillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Osler's nodesEndocarditis
Owl's eyeCMV
Painless jaundicePancreatic cancer (head)
Palpable purpura on legs and buttocksHenoch-Schonlein purpura
Pancoast's tumorBronchogenic apical tumor assoc. with horner's syndrome
PannusRheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson's diseaseNigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Periosteal elevation on x-raypyogenic osteomyelitis
Peutz-Jeghers syndromeBenign polyposis
Peyronie's diseasePenile fibrosis


(6) Disease/FindingAssociation
Philadelphia chromosomeCML (maybe sometimes AML)
Pick bodiesPick's disease
Pick's diseaseProgressive dememtia, similar to Alzheimer's
Plummer-Vinson syndromeEsophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
PodagraGout (MP joint of hallux)
Podocyte fusionMinimal change disease
Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edemaDry beriberi
Pompe's diseaseLysosomal glucosidase deficiency assoc with cardiomegaly
Port-wine stainHemangioma
Positivie anterior "drawer sign"Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Pott's diseaseVertebral tuberculosis
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangementGlioblastoma multiforme
PseudorosettesEwing's Sarcoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosisHorner's syndrome (often assoc w/ Pancoast's tumor)
Rash on palms and solesSyphilis, Rocky mountain spotted fever
Raynaud's syndromeRecurrent vasospasm in extremeties
RBC casts in urineacute glomerulonephritis
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and s. aureus infectionscystic fibrosis
red urine in the morningparoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg cellsHodgkin's lymphoma
Reid index increasedChronic bronchitis
Reinke crystalsLeydig cell tumor
Reiter's syndromeurethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomasvon Hippel-Lindau disease
Renal epithelial cell casts in urineAcute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringentPseudogout


(7) Disease/FindingAssociation
Rib notchingcoarctation of the aorta
Roth's spots in retinaendocarditis
Rotor's syndromecongenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formation (RBCs)Multiple myeloma
Russell bodiesMultiple myeloma
S3Left-to-right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurg, LV failure (CHF)
S4Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schiller-Duval bodiesYolk sac tumor
Senile plaquesAlzheimer's disease
Sezary syndromecutaneous t-cell lymphoma
Sheehan's syndromepostpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reactionNeisseria meningitidis
Signet-ring cellsgastric carcinioma
Simian creaseDown syndrome
Sipple's syndromeMEN type IIa
Sjogren's syndromeDry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Skip lesionsCrohn's
Slapped cheeksErythema infectosum (Fifth disease)
Smith antigenSLE
"Smudge cell"CLL
Soap bubble on x-rayGiant cell tumor of bone
Spike and dome on EMMEmbranous glomerulonephritis
Spitz nevusBenign juvenile melanoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernailsEndocarditis
Starry-sky patternBurkitt's lymphoma
Strawberry tongueScarlet fever
Streaky ovariesturner's syndrome
String sign on x-rayCrohn's disease
Subepthlial humps on EMPoststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Suboccipital lymphadenopathyRubella
Sulfur granulesActinomycetes israelii
Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemiaScurvy (ascorbic acid, vitamin C deficiency)
Systolic ejection murmur (Crescendo/decrescendo)aortic stenosis


(8) Disease/FindingAssociation
t(8;14)Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)Philadelphia chromosome, CML, bcr-abl
t(14;18)Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
Tabes dorsalisTertiary syphilis
Tendon xanthomas (classically Achilles)Familial hypercholesterolemia
Thumb sign on lateral x-rayEpiglottitis (H. flu)
Thyroidization of kidneyChronic bacterial pyelonephritis
"Tram-track" appearance on LMMembranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
Trousseau's signVisceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Virchow's nodeLeft supraclavicular node enlargement from metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow's triadPulmonary embolism=stasis, endothelial damage, hypercoagulable state
von Recklinghausen's diseaseNeurofibromatosis with cafe aulait spots
von Recklinghausen's disease of boneOsteitis fibrosa cystica ("Brown tumor")
Wallenberg's syndromePICA thrombosis
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndromeAdrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia
Waxy castsChronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urineAcute pyelonephritis
WBCs in urineAcute cystitis
Wermer's syndromeMEN type I
Whipple's diseaseMalabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Wilson's diseaseHepatolenticular degeneration
"wire loop" appearance on LMLupus nephropathy
Wiskott-Aldrich syndromesex linked recessive disorder: thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, low IgM, increased IgG, IgA, IgE. T cells can't bind B cells
"Worst headache of my life"Berry aneurysm, assoc with adult polycystic kidney dz
Xanthochromia (CSF)Subaracnoid hemorrhage
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjunctivitis siccaSjogren's syndrome
Zenker's diverticulumUpper GI diverticulum
Zollinger Ellison syndromeGastrin-secreting tumor associated with ulcers

There's More!

Medical Conditions 2


See Also Medical and other Sciences